Excel allows the user to create spreadsheets and graphs. Excel is the world's most popular spreadsheet program and belongs to the Microsoft Office suite. The mime type for file extension XLS - MS Excel Spreadsheet File is application/msexcel application/x-msexcel application/vnd.ms-excel application/x-ms-excel application/x-excel application/x-dos_ms_excel application/xls application/x-xls zz-application/zz-winassoc-xls. Excel can be purchased for both Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh operating systems.
Kaspersky Lab's Alex Gostev said the new threat was discovered targeting Russian users with a Trojan that contains two components -- a legitimate bcm.exe file BitCoin
Miner; and a malicious module that installs the bcm without the user’s knowledge and adds it to the autorun registry.
In this work we introduce Prism, a new proof-of-work blockchain protocol, which can achieve 1) security against up to 50% adversarial hashing power, 2) optimal throughput up to the capacity C of the network, 3) confirmation latency for honest transactions proportional to the propagation delay D, with confirmation error probability exponentially small in CD, and 4) eventual total ordering of all transactions. Our approach to the design of this protocol is based on deconstructing the blockchain into its basic functionalities and systematically scaling up these functionalities to approach their physical limits. Transaction throughput, confirmation latency and confirmation reliability are fundamental performance measures of any blockchain system in addition to its security. Existing systems operate far away from these physical limits. For more information, please see our paper. In a decentralized setting, these measures are limited by two underlying physical network attributes - communication capacity and speed-of-light propagation delay.
With this sidechain, bitcoin users would be able to hold the value of any asset in the world in the same censorship-resistant manner as they hold bitcoin. Secondly, the previously mentioned Paul Sztorc is working on Bitcoin
Hivemind, which is intended to be a decentralized prediction market.
First, validating a transaction requires re-executing the state transition that it attests to. Second, transactions not only reveal which application had a state transition but also reveal the application’s internal state. The core of Zexe is a construction for a new cryptographic primitive that we introduce, decentralized private computation (DPC) schemes. Second, transactions can be validated in constant time by anyone, regardless of the offline computation. We design, bitcoin implement, and evaluate Zexe, a ledger-based system where users can execute offline computations and subsequently produce transactions, attesting to the correctness of these computations, that satisfy two main properties. Ledger-based systems that support rich applications often suffer from two limitations. We demonstrate how to use Zexe to realize privacy-preserving analogues of popular applications - private user-defined assets and private decentralized exchanges for these assets. For more information, please see our paper. First, transactions hide all information about the offline computations. In order to achieve an efficient implementation of our construction, we leverage tools in the area of cryptographic proofs, bitcoin including succinct zero knowledge proofs and recursive proof composition. Overall, transactions in Zexe are 968 bytes regardless of the offline computation, and generating them takes less than 1 min plus a time that grows with the offline computation.
Firstly, a lower-security, higher-throughput blockchain can be added to bitcoin, which may at least partially solve some of the contention around whether bitcoin should be digital gold or a global payments system.
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"The Trojan is Infostealer.Coinbit and it has one motive: to locate your Bitcoin wallet.dat file and email it to the attacker. We have also discovered source code on underground forums which locates the wallet and, using FTP, uploads it to the attacker's servers," writes Symantec's Stephen Doherty.
Combining these transactions into arbitrarily-defined worklfows, developers can build a larger class of decentralized applications, such as provably-secure and fair lotteries or e-voting. Each functional unit is a distributed system that provides a special-purpose functionality by exposing atomic transactions to the smart-contract developer. Protean employs secure specialized modules, called functional units, for cryptocurrency building decentralized applications that are currently insecure or impossible to implement with smart contracts. In this paper we present Protean, a general-purpose decentralized computing platform that addresses these limitations by moving from a monolithic execution model, where all participating nodes store all the state and execute every computation, to a modular execution-model. While showing great promise, smart contracts are difficult to program correctly, as they need a deep understanding of cryptography and distributed algorithms,and offer limited functionality, as they have to be deterministic and cannot operate on secret data. For further information, please see our paper.
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